Application of the Regulation

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Concept Model Re-Scheduling FDP start time

FAR 117.11 Flight Time Limitations:

Flight time in a FDP:

  • Shall be calculated using the latest available flight time.

eg) FDP with the following scheduled flight times:

Report 08:00
Leg # Depart Time Arrive Time Flight time Accumulated Flight time
1- Scheduled ISP 09:00 FLL 11:00 2:00 2:00
2- Scheduled FLL 11:30 BWI 13:15 1:45 3:45
3- Scheduled BWI 13:45 FLL 15:30 1:45 5:30
4- Scheduled FLL 16:00 ISP 18:00 2:00 7:30

eg) FDP with the following Actual/Estimated flight times:

Report 08:00
Leg # Depart Time Arrive Time Flight time Accumulated Flight time
1- Actual ISP 09:05 FLL 11:15 2:10 2:10
2- Estimated FLL 11:45 BWI 13:30 2:00 4:10
3- Estimated BWI 13:50 FLL 15:35 1:45 5:55
4- Scheduled FLL 16:00 ISP 18:00 2:00 7:55

FAR 117.11(a)(1)- Standard Flightcrew:

  • Based upon the Report Time (RTZ), enter Table A, and find the Flight Time Limit (see ** note below).
    • if the flight has not taken off and the Flight Time in a FDP is greater than the Flight Time Limit, the flight may not be operated by the FCM.
    • Flightcrew assigned to an ASB will use the Report Time of the ASB.
Time of Report (Acclimated) Maximum Flight Time (hours)
00:00 to 04:59 8:00
05:00 to 19:59 9:00
20:00 50 23:59 8:00

‘** Note: The FAA has stated, that if a FCM is in an acclimated state, that it is permissible to use the Local Time of Report when entering Table A.

FAR 117.11(a)(2)- 3 Pilot (Augmented) Flightcrew:

  • if the flight has not taken off and the Flight Time in a FDP is greater than the 13:00, the flight may not be operated by the flightcrew.

FAR 117.11(a)(3)- 4 Pilot (Heavy) Flightcrew:

  • if the flight has not taken off and the Flight Time in a FDP is greater than the 17:00, the flight may not be operated by the flightcrew.

Scheduled FDP Limitations:

FAR 117.13 Standard Flightcrew:

  • Based upon the Report Time (RTZ), enter Table B (** see note below), and find the FDP Limit associated with number of operational flight segments within the FDP, (DHD flights do not count as an operational Flight).
  • A FDP that begins with an Un-acclimated status, will have the FDP Limit reduced an additional thirty (30) minutes from the value in table B.
  • A FCM is not allowed to be assigned/or accept an assignment in which the scheduled FDP Time exceeds the FDP Limit.

Tables B

Scheduled Flight Duty Period Start Time (Acclimated)

2-Pilot Flight Crew

Number of Operational Flight Segments

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

0:00

3:59

9:00

9:00

9:00

9:00

9:00

9:00

9:00

4:00

4:59

10:00

10:00

10:00

10:00

9:00

9:00

9:00

5:00

5:59

12:00

12:00

12:00

12:00

11:30

11:00

10:30

6:00

6:59

13:00

13:00

12:00

12:00

11:30

11:00

10:30

7:00

11:59

14:00

14:00

13:00

13:00

12:30

12:00

11:30

12:00

12:59

13:00

13:00

13:00

13:00

12:30

12:00

11:30

13:00

16:59

12:00

12:00

12:00

12:00

11:30

11:00

10:30

17:00

19:59

12:00

12:00

11:00

11:00

10:00

9:00

9:00

20:00

21:59

12:00

12:00

11:00

11:00

10:00

9:00

9:00

22:00

22:59

11:00

11:00

10:00

10:00

9:00

9:00

9:00

23:00

23:59

10:00

10:00

10:00

9:00

9:00

9:00

9:00

Table B
‘** Note: The FAA has stated, that if a FCM is in an acclimated state, that it is permissible to use the Local Time of Report when entering Table B.

FAR 117.17 3 Pilot (Augmented) and 4-Pilot (Heavy) Flightcrew:

  • Based upon the Report Time (RTZ), enter Table C (** see note below), and find the FDP Limit associated with Flight Crew Scheme and with the applied On-board Rest Facility.
  • A FDP that begins with an Un-acclimated status, will have the FDP Limit reduced an additional thirty (30) minutes from the value in Table C.
  • A FCM is not allowed to be assigned/or accept an assignment in which the scheduled FDP Time exceeds the FDP Limit.

Tables C

Flight Duty Period Start Time (Acclimated)

3-Pilot Flight Crew *

4-Pilot Flight Crew *

Onboard Rest Facility

Onboard Rest Facility

1

2

3

1

2

3

0:00

5:59

15:00

14:00

13:00

17:00

15:30

13:30

6:00

6:59

16:00

15:00

14:00

18:30

16:30

14:30

7:00

12:59

17:00

16:30

15:00

19:00

18:00

15:30

13:00

16:59

16:00

15:00

14:00

18:30

16:30

14:30

17:00

23:59

15:00

14:00

13:00

17:00

15:30

13:30

Table C

** Note: The FAA has stated, that if a FCM is in an acclimated state, that it is permissible to use the Local Time of Report when entering Table C.

The use of Augmentation is restricted under the following conditions:

  • At least one flightcrew member with a PIC type rating must be present and alert on the flight deck at all times.
  • A limitation of 3 flight segments in any FDP.
  • Ninety consecutive minutes are available for in-flight rest for the pilot performing monitoring duties during landing.
  • The flightcrew member who will be landing the aircraft on the final leg of the FDP is required to have 2 hours of uninterrupted rest in the second half of the FDP.

FAR 117.25 Rest Requirements:

FAR 117.25(e)(f) – Daily Rest Requirements:

  • For a FCM assigned to report for a FDP, they must have been given a Rest Period of no less than ten (10) consecutive hours and the Rest Period must allow for a sleep opportunity of at least eight (8) uninterrupted hours.
    • the Rest Period must have ended at time of report.
    • the Rest Time Span must be greater than or equal to ten (10) hours.
  • For a FCM assigned to report for an ASB, they must have been given a Rest Period of no less than ten (10) hours and the Rest Period must allow for a sleep opportunity of at least eight (8) hours.
    • the Rest Period must have ended at time of report.
    • the Rest Time Span must be greater than or equal to ten (10) hours.
  • For a FCM assigned to a SCR, they must have been given a Rest Period of no less than ten (10) hours and the Rest Period must allow for a sleep opportunity of at least eight (8) hours.
    • the Rest Period must have ended at time of start of the SCR.
    • the Rest Time Span must be greater than or equal to ten (10) hours.
  • A FCM must always receive a sleep opportunity of at least eight (8) hours before reporting for a FDP.

FAR 117.25(b) – Weekly Rest Requirements:

The basis is to check the requirement at the report time of a FDP.

This method allows for re-scheduling, affording the certificate holder more flexibility.

  • At least one rest period of 30:00 must be found in the previous 168:00 measured from report time of a FDP.
  • if the following conditions are true, the flight may not depart.
    • Time Since 30 hour Rest is equal to the report time (UTC) minus 30 hour rest period end time.
    • if the Time Since 30 hour Rest exceeds 138:00 the Flightcrew member is illegal and may not report for the FDP.
      (Note: if you add 30:00 to 138:00 the total is 168:00)

30 in 168 depiction FDP start
30 hour rest period in 168 consecutive hours based upon FDP start

FAR 117.25(d) – Rest following long trip with a change in theater

  • The regulation is applied under the following conditions:
    • The trip must have exceeded 168:00 duration away from base.
    • The trip must have had a change in theater.
  • The required Rest Time Span upon return to base must be:
    • greater than or equal to 56:00 in duration
    • include 3 Physiological Nights Rest

FAR 117.25(g) – Rest following Deadhead (DHD) Transportation

This regulation is only applied in cases where a DHD leg is followed by a intervening rest period before a FDP.

  • For a duty period that contains only DHD legs:
    • is the span from report time (UTC) to arrive time (UTC) of the last leg in the duty period.
  • For a duty period that contains DHD legs that follow legs conducted under FAR 117 (tail end DHD):
    • is the span from arrive time (UTC) of the last FAR 117 flight to the arrive time (UTC) of the last leg in the duty period.
  • Based upon the Report Time (RTZ), enter Table B, and find the FDP Limit:
    • for DHD only duty periods use one (1) for the number of flights
    • for tail end DHD duty periods use the number of operational flights in the duty period.
  • if the Time in Deadhead Transportation exceeds the FDP Limit then the Rest Time Span following the duty period is the greater of:
    • 10:00
    • Time in Deadhead Transportation

FAR 117.15 Split Duty Period Limitations:

Split Duty Period rules are applied under the following conditions:

  • Standard Flightcrew
  • The Duty Break allows for three (3) hours rest in a ground rest facility between 22:00 and 05:00 (Local Time)

split duty

Split Duty Depiction

The applied limitations are:

  • The combined FDP and Duty Break must be less than or equal to 14:00.
  • The total of the FDP before/after the Duty Break must be within the limitations in Table B.
  • The Duty Break must be scheduled and may not be reduced.

Practical Example from the FAA:

  • The split duty break must be scheduled and the actualbreak may not be less than the scheduled split duty break (in the suitable accommodation). (117.15(d))
    • If the FCM was scheduled to have 3 hours split duty break in the suitable accommodation and actually received 4 hours, then the credit would be based upon 4 hours.* HOWEVER, the combined FDP and split duty break may not exceed a total of 14 hours.(117.15(f))
    • If a FCM is scheduled at 2130 hours for 2 segments, the maximum FDP is 12 hours. (Ref Table B)
    • If a FCM is scheduled to have 3 hours in the suitable accommodation, the max time you can be on FDP (combined FDP and split duty break) is 14 hours as it is capped per the regulation.
    • If a FCM is scheduled at 2300 hours and scheduled to fly 2 segments, the max FDP is 10 hours. (Ref Table B)
    • If a FCM is scheduled for a 3 hour split duty rest, now the maximum time on FDP is 13 hours (10 hr FDP + 3 hours split duty break).
  • Given the same conditions, to permit a Flightcrew member to be on duty for 14 hours, they would have to schedule a 4 hours split duty rest (10 hr FDP + 4 hours split duty rest).
  • The key is to understand that they must schedule the break, you must actually receive the scheduled amount of break or more in a suitable accommodation, the scheduled break in the suitable accommodation does not include the time to and from the suitable accommodation and the FDP is capped.

FAR 117.27 Consecutive Nighttime Operations:

  • Consecutive NFDPs are those which occur during the WOCL on consecutive calendar days.
  • A duty break is a period in which a Flightcrew member is given a sleep opportunity in a suitable accommodation of at least 2 hours between 22:00 and 05:00 (Local Time).

nfdp legal
A flightcrew member is not allowed to be assigned to more than 3 consecutive NFDPs — unless  the following conditions are met:

  • All of the NFDPs must contain a duty break of at least 2 hours.
  • The Flightcrew member may be assigned a maximum of 5 consecutive NFDPs.

nfdp illegal

FAR 117.21 Reserve Limitations:

Airport Standby (ASB):

  • Means a FCM reports for flight duty at a specific location to await assignment to a trip.
    • Is considered duty as well as flight duty period.
    • Is subject to rest requirements.
    • Is subject to flight duty limitations.
  • Rest Requirements:
    • must be given a rest period under the requirements 117.25(e) (ten (10) hours rest period with an eight (8) hour sleep opportunity)
    • must be given a rest period under 117.25(b) (30 hours rest period in 168 hours)
  • FDP Limitations
    • for a FCM assigned to a stand alone ASB, or for an ASB further assigned to a Standard Flightcrew (FAR 117.13):
      • at Report (RTZ) of the ASB the limitations in Table B. (Stand alone ASB shall use 1 flight segment)
    • for a FCM assigned to an ASB further assigned to an Augmented or Heavy Flightcrew (FAR 117.17):
      • at Report (RTZ) of the ASB the limitations in Table C. (Stand alone ASB shall use 1 flight segment)

Short Call Reserve (SCR):

  • Means a period of time in which a Flightcrew member is expected to be contactable to be able to receive an assignment for FDP without an intervening rest period.
    • Is subject to flight duty limitations when assigned to a FDP.
    • Is subject to rest requirements
  • Rest Requirements:
    • must be given a rest period under the requirements 117.25(e) (ten (10) hours rest period with an eight (8) hour sleep opportunity)
    • must be given a rest period under 117.25(b) (30 hours rest period in 168 hours)
  • Reserve Availability Period (RAP) Limit:
    • must not exceed 14 hours
    • is measured from the start time (UTC) of the SCR to the end time (UTC).
  • Combined RAP and FDP:
    • (See discussion below)
    • measured from the start time (UTC) of the SCR to the end time (UTC) of the assigned FDP.
    • FDP with a Standard Flightcrew:
      • limitation is the lesser of 16:00, and the FDP limit from Table B plus 4 hours. Enter Table B using the start time (RTZ) of the FDP.
    • FDP with an Augmented or Heavy Flightcrew:
      • limitation the FDP limit from Table C plus 4 hours. Enter Table B using the start time (RTZ) of the FDP.

SCR depiction
SCR depiction

  • Use of Table B and Table C for the determination of Combined RAP and FDP Limitations:

Rap FDP method 2

  • Entry to Table B uses the Report Time of the FDP (6:00), and applies the Number of Flight segments within the un-augmented FDP assigned during the RAP.
  • Entry to Table C uses the Report Time of the FDP (6:00), and applies the Class of the Rest Facility with the Number of Pilots within the Augmented FDP assigned during the RAP.

Long Call Reserve (LCR):

  • Is NOT considered duty OR flight duty period.
  • Is NOT considered Rest.
  • Will require an intervening rest period prior to being assigned to a ASB, SCR or FDP when a flightcrew member is notified by the certificate holder to report for duty. the rest period must fulfill the requirements under 117.25(e).
  • Will require a minimum of 12:00 notice prior to being assigned to a ASB, SCR or FDP that starts before the WOCL (RTZ) and extends into or through the WOCL.

Note:

Based on comments from the FAA the last few months, they consider any obligation for a pilot to check his schedule or answer the phone is duty. Hence the 10 hour rest requirement.  It would follow that the pilot would also be subject to 30/168 before being assigned any SCR or FDP.

LCR to WOCL depiction
LCR to WOCL depiction

FAR 117.23 Accumulated Limitations:

  • All accumulations use a lookback from an anchor point.
  • Flight time is accumulated using a 672 hour lookback and a 365 calendar day lookback.
    • With the365 calendar day lookback, when a flight crosses from 1 calendar day to the next calendar day, two checks must be made:
      • The first from 23:59 day 1
      • and the second at the arrival time.
    • if the flight is not crossing midnight, just use the arrival time.
  • FDP time is accumulated using a 168 hour lookback and a 672 hour lookback.
  • All accumulations use actual (known) values for activities that have already taken place, and scheduled values for activities in the future.

Accumulated Flight time:

  • Rule is applied as a scheduled limitation ( 117.23(b) ):
    • 100 hours limitation in any 672 hour period.
    • 1000 hours in any 365 calendar day period.

Accumulated FDP:

  • Rule is applied as a scheduled as well as an in progress limitation ( 117.23(c) ):
    • 60 hours limitation in any 168 hour period.
    • 190 hours in any 672 hour period.

accum overview
Depiction of Accumulated Values

Cumultive Limits Table

Extended FDP before takeoff may NOT cause a violation of Cumulative FDP Limits (117.19(a)(3)).

FAR 117.19 Extended FDP Limitations:

Primary Rule for FDP Extensions:

Extensions to a FDP above the scheduled FDP limitations (Table B for standard Flightcrew / Table C for Augmented or Heavy Flightcrew) are permitted as follows:

  • 117.19(a) Before takeoff:

If it is known that the expected OFF time will not permit completion of the FDP within the following limitations, the FCM must remain/return to the gate.

  • Previous extension limit:
    • Maximum extension is 2:00 provided either of the follow is true:
      • No extension above scheduled limitations exceeds 0:30 in the previous 168:00 looking back from the start of the FDP.
      • An intervening rest period of 30:00 or more has been given since the previous extension greater than 0:30.
    • Else the maximum extension is 0:30.
  • Accumulated FDP Limit:
    • An extension is not permitted to exceed:
      • 60 hours in any 168:00 (FAR 117.23(c)(1)
      • 190 hours in any 672:00 (FAR 117.23(c)(2)
  • Any extension beyond 0:30 above the scheduled FDP limit shall require FCM permission.
  • 117.19(b) After takeoff:
    • An FDP which at time of takeoff was in compliance with 117.19(a) will be permitted to extend the FDP to safely land the aircraft.

extension legal

Depiction of Legal Extension above 30 minutes

extension illegal
Depiction of Illegal Extension above 30 minutes

Interaction of Short-Call Reserve and FDP Extensions:

Is very complex, FDP in itself must adhere to the Primary Rule as discussed in the previous section,

but additional constraints must be adhered to as well.

In the 06-Feb-2013 Technical correction to FAR 117, the FAA clarified the rule.

If we examine un-augmented operations we see:

RAP FDP Ext 1

In this example, the crewmember is strictly limited by the Primary Rule, and no further extension beyond 19:00 will be permitted if the condition is known before takeoff.

RAP FDP Ext 2

In this example, the crewmember is strictly limited by the Primary Rule, and no further extension beyond 20:00 will be permitted if the condition is known before takeoff. As you can see the FDP is extended beyond the combined RAP and FDP limit of 16:00.

In this example, we can see how the combined RAP and FDP limitation is now the controlling factor.

RAP FDP Ext 3

Since the Combined RAP and FDP, requires a scheduled end of the FDP by 19:00, it will only be permitted to be extended by 2:00 until 21:00, even though the Primary Rule would permit the extension to 22:00.

Primary rules that are still in effect are previous extensions beyond 0:30 within the previous 168:00 without an intervening rest greater than or equal to 30:00, and Cumulative FDP limitations.

The same principles are also applied in augmented operations.

RAP FDP Ext 4

In this example, the crewmember is strictly limited by the Primary Rule, and no further extension beyond 20:00 will be permitted if the condition is known before takeoff.

RAP FDP Ext 5

In this example, the crewmember is strictly limited by the Primary Rule, and no further extension beyond 22:00 will be permitted if the condition is known before takeoff. As you can see the FDP is extended beyond the combined RAP and FDP limit of 21:00.

RAP FDP Ext 6

In this example, we can see how the combined RAP and FDP limitation is now the controlling factor.

Since the Combined RAP and FDP, requires a scheduled end of the FDP by 22:00, it will only be permitted to be extended by 2:00 until 24:00, even though the Primary Rule would permit the extension to 01:00.

Primary rules that are still in effect are previous extensions beyond 0:30 within the previous 168:00 without an intervening rest greater than or equal to 30:00, and Cumulative FDP limitations.

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Concept Model Re-Scheduling FDP start time

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